Weight loss and diet plan for a healthy lifestyle. http://medicallext.com News, information, and opinions on weight loss, diet, nutrition, and health. Fri, 25 Mar 2011 09:12:15 +0000 en-EN hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.4.1 DRUG THERAPY FOR INSOMNIA http://medicallext.com/2011/03/drug-therapy-for-insomnia/ http://medicallext.com/2011/03/drug-therapy-for-insomnia/#comments Fri, 25 Mar 2011 09:12:15 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=165
The more we learn about sleep, the more we know about how to manage sleep disorders. In recent years, as data from sleep labs and other sources have become increasingly available, many physicians have begun to realize that in most cases pharmaceutical management of insomnia is at best a temporary solution. As a result of our growing knowledge, there has been a decided change in the way doctors deal with the problem. In 1964, the first year such data were collected, over 32 million prescriptions for sleeping pills were written. By 1971 the number peaked at over 42 million; by 1982, however, that figure had been cut exactly in half.
“Treating” insomnia by administering medicine may produce sleep for a few days or a few weeks, and the careful use of drugs can help especially if you are severely troubled by your insomnia or if inadequate sleep poses a threat to your health, safety, or well-being. However, unless your doctor uncovers the physical or mental disorder that is causing your sleeplessness, the problem will simply persist. In a sense sleeping pills are like throat lozenges, which soothe the irritation but do not cure the cough. No pill yet conceived cures insomnia. A more effective approach to chronic insomnia is some combination of psychological and behavioral therapies, the goal of which is to encourage poor sleepers to quit dwelling on the symptoms and bring about changes in sleep habits.
There is one exception to the rule: in rare cases of true organic insomnia—sleeplessness without any identifiable medical or psychological cause—long-term therapy with sleep-inducing drugs may be required. Even then, treatment is most effective if the patient takes frequent drug “holidays,” or respites, from the use of medication.
From the pharmaceutical fact file:
* Sleeping medications are the most widely used class of drugs in this country.
* Doctors write between 20 and 30 million prescriptions a year for sleeping pills and tranquilizers.
* Americans spend over $200 million a year for sleeping medications.
* Over 4 percent of the population—nearly 11 million people—use prescription sleep medicines.
* An even larger group uses over-the-counter preparations.
* About half of all patients in hospitals receive sleep medications at some point during their stay.
* Approximately 600 tons of sleeping medications are consumed each year.
Here’s the kicker:
* In many cases these pills don’t work, make the problem worse, or result in serious side effects. About a third of drug-related deaths reported to the Department of Health and Human Services involve sleeping pills.
*265\226\8*

DRUG THERAPY FOR INSOMNIAThe more we learn about sleep, the more we know about how to manage sleep disorders. In recent years, as data from sleep labs and other sources have become increasingly available, many physicians have begun to realize that in most cases pharmaceutical management of insomnia is at best a temporary solution. As a result of our growing knowledge, there has been a decided change in the way doctors deal with the problem. In 1964, the first year such data were collected, over 32 million prescriptions for sleeping pills were written. By 1971 the number peaked at over 42 million; by 1982, however, that figure had been cut exactly in half.”Treating” insomnia by administering medicine may produce sleep for a few days or a few weeks, and the careful use of drugs can help especially if you are severely troubled by your insomnia or if inadequate sleep poses a threat to your health, safety, or well-being. However, unless your doctor uncovers the physical or mental disorder that is causing your sleeplessness, the problem will simply persist. In a sense sleeping pills are like throat lozenges, which soothe the irritation but do not cure the cough. No pill yet conceived cures insomnia. A more effective approach to chronic insomnia is some combination of psychological and behavioral therapies, the goal of which is to encourage poor sleepers to quit dwelling on the symptoms and bring about changes in sleep habits.There is one exception to the rule: in rare cases of true organic insomnia—sleeplessness without any identifiable medical or psychological cause—long-term therapy with sleep-inducing drugs may be required. Even then, treatment is most effective if the patient takes frequent drug “holidays,” or respites, from the use of medication.From the pharmaceutical fact file:* Sleeping medications are the most widely used class of drugs in this country.* Doctors write between 20 and 30 million prescriptions a year for sleeping pills and tranquilizers.* Americans spend over $200 million a year for sleeping medications.* Over 4 percent of the population—nearly 11 million people—use prescription sleep medicines.* An even larger group uses over-the-counter preparations.* About half of all patients in hospitals receive sleep medications at some point during their stay.* Approximately 600 tons of sleeping medications are consumed each year.Here’s the kicker:* In many cases these pills don’t work, make the problem worse, or result in serious side effects. About a third of drug-related deaths reported to the Department of Health and Human Services involve sleeping pills.*265\226\8*

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WHAT CAUSES ASTHMA: PREDISPOSING FACTORS http://medicallext.com/2011/03/what-causes-asthma-predisposing-factors/ http://medicallext.com/2011/03/what-causes-asthma-predisposing-factors/#comments Tue, 15 Mar 2011 09:11:30 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=163
IT IS NOT known with certainty what exactly causes the development of asthma, but it appears to be a complex interaction of many factors.
Predisposing factors
A hereditary predisposition makes a child inherently susceptible to the disease. This includes the propensity to produce abnormal amounts of harmful IgE (Immunoglobulin E) antibody leading to an allergic reaction which causes inflammation of the bronchial tissues in response to environmental allergens. This phenomenon is also called atopy.
Children from families having a history of asthma are more likely to suffer from this problem. The greater the degree of inheritance, the greater the likelihood of the offsprings becoming sensitive. Further, when both the parents are affected, the disease in the children appears earlier, and often before puberty. However, heredity alone does not produce asthma. It only makes the child more suscetible.
Children inherit an allergic predisposition rather than a specific allergic disease; children of a parent suffering from hay fever may develop asthma or eczema, and not necessarily hay fever.
*17\260\8*

WHAT CAUSES ASTHMA: PREDISPOSING FACTORSIT IS NOT known with certainty what exactly causes the development of asthma, but it appears to be a complex interaction of many factors.Predisposing factorsA hereditary predisposition makes a child inherently susceptible to the disease. This includes the propensity to produce abnormal amounts of harmful IgE (Immunoglobulin E) antibody leading to an allergic reaction which causes inflammation of the bronchial tissues in response to environmental allergens. This phenomenon is also called atopy.Children from families having a history of asthma are more likely to suffer from this problem. The greater the degree of inheritance, the greater the likelihood of the offsprings becoming sensitive. Further, when both the parents are affected, the disease in the children appears earlier, and often before puberty. However, heredity alone does not produce asthma. It only makes the child more suscetible.Children inherit an allergic predisposition rather than a specific allergic disease; children of a parent suffering from hay fever may develop asthma or eczema, and not necessarily hay fever.*17\260\8*

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DEALING WITH UNPREDICTABLE PERIODS: I BLED SO MUCH I THOUGHT I HAD A MISCARRIAGE http://medicallext.com/2011/03/dealing-with-unpredictable-periods-i-bled-so-much-i-thought-i-had-a-miscarriage/ http://medicallext.com/2011/03/dealing-with-unpredictable-periods-i-bled-so-much-i-thought-i-had-a-miscarriage/#comments Tue, 08 Mar 2011 09:10:47 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=161
My period is normally like clockwork, but last month I was a week late and I had cramps, which I usually never have. I bled extremely heavily for three days. I couldn’t get out of bed the first day at all. I’ve been trying to get pregnant and I think I might have had a miscarriage. Could it be?
—T.P.
Springfield, New Jersey
If this woman was under stress of some sort, anxiety might have caused the lateness of her period. During this delay her uterine lining continued to develop. When menstruation finally began, her flow was unusually heavy because by then the sloughed-off endometrium was much thicker and more vascular than it would have been if she had had her period on time.
Since this woman was trying to conceive, there is, of course, a possibility that she was suffering a miscarriage. Her period was a week late. A conception which became defective—perhaps the fertilized egg did not implant itself properly in the womb—might have taken place. Women who are completely in tune with their systems can often sense whether they are pregnant. If this woman knows her body, then she probably knows what happened.
*48\333\2*

DEALING WITH UNPREDICTABLE PERIODS: I BLED SO MUCH I THOUGHT I HAD A MISCARRIAGEMy period is normally like clockwork, but last month I was a week late and I had cramps, which I usually never have. I bled extremely heavily for three days. I couldn’t get out of bed the first day at all. I’ve been trying to get pregnant and I think I might have had a miscarriage. Could it be?—T.P.Springfield, New JerseyIf this woman was under stress of some sort, anxiety might have caused the lateness of her period. During this delay her uterine lining continued to develop. When menstruation finally began, her flow was unusually heavy because by then the sloughed-off endometrium was much thicker and more vascular than it would have been if she had had her period on time.Since this woman was trying to conceive, there is, of course, a possibility that she was suffering a miscarriage. Her period was a week late. A conception which became defective—perhaps the fertilized egg did not implant itself properly in the womb—might have taken place. Women who are completely in tune with their systems can often sense whether they are pregnant. If this woman knows her body, then she probably knows what happened.*48\333\2*

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WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY LIVING TOGETHER? http://medicallext.com/2011/02/what-do-you-understand-by-living-together/ http://medicallext.com/2011/02/what-do-you-understand-by-living-together/#comments Mon, 14 Feb 2011 09:10:00 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=159
Living together i.e. cohabiting and not getting married is a situation chosen by those who dont want to live alone but are reluctant to involve themselves in marriage. Cohabitating for some people may take the form of a trial marriage. It may be for them the most intimate and satisfying way of having a relationship. It may be based on deep emotional attachments and routinely include sex.
What is open marriage?
I n it couple live together, love and care for each other but are flexible with regard to relationship with other people. In it each partner with the consent of the other has the freedom to establish other emotional relationship which may or may not include sex. These relationships are not to interefere with marital relationship.
Is it true that sexual problems are the reason for most of divorces?
No, not in many cases. Problems in a marriage do surface in the couples sex life since this is couples’ most intimate way of relating. General anger, hostility and immaturity can emerge during sex act giving a false impression of its being related to sex. Sexual difficulties are actually symptoms of problems in one or other person or in their relationship.
*119\301\2*

WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY LIVING TOGETHER?
Living together i.e. cohabiting and not getting married is a situation chosen by those who dont want to live alone but are reluctant to involve themselves in marriage. Cohabitating for some people may take the form of a trial marriage. It may be for them the most intimate and satisfying way of having a relationship. It may be based on deep emotional attachments and routinely include sex.
What is open marriage?I n it couple live together, love and care for each other but are flexible with regard to relationship with other people. In it each partner with the consent of the other has the freedom to establish other emotional relationship which may or may not include sex. These relationships are not to interefere with marital relationship.
Is it true that sexual problems are the reason for most of divorces?
No, not in many cases. Problems in a marriage do surface in the couples sex life since this is couples’ most intimate way of relating. General anger, hostility and immaturity can emerge during sex act giving a false impression of its being related to sex. Sexual difficulties are actually symptoms of problems in one or other person or in their relationship.*119\301\2*

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HIV: ON LIVING-SOURCES OF SUPPORT: http://medicallext.com/2011/02/hiv-on-living-sources-of-support/ http://medicallext.com/2011/02/hiv-on-living-sources-of-support/#comments Tue, 08 Feb 2011 09:09:18 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=157
We accept as a standard truth that we are separate from all other people: we are alone, we are individuals, we are each one of a kind. We never truly understand what other people feel, nor do they truly understand our feelings. We are on our own, responsible for our own decisions and for solutions to our own problems. We protect ourselves first, and at almost any cost.
We accept as just as much a standard truth the opposite: that we are also interconnected. What happens to a friend seems to some extent also to happen to us. When a friend is lonely or worried or in pain, we cannot simply ignore him or her; we even feel some of her or his misery.
Conversely, when we are unhappy ourselves, the presence of a friend is a comfort and relief. “For grief concealed strangles the soul,” wrote Robert Burton, a seventeenth-century minister and scholar, “but when as we shall but impart it to some discreet, trusty, loving friend, it is
instantly removed.” Friends help us feel that someone else is interested, that we need not be alone. “Friends’ confabulations are comfortable at all times,” Burton wrote, “as fire in Winter, shade in Summer, as sleep on the grass to them that are weary, meal and drink to him that is hungry or athirst.” Friends give us the warmth of their concern, a rest from our troubles, and a feeling that we are somehow nourished.
The point is that, for people affected by HIV infection, the support of other people is as important to their minds as medication is to their bodies. When people are sick and hurting and alienated and guilty and feeling unjustly struck, they have a greater need for other people. Even when they are alone and feeling isolated, they are comforted by the knowledge that other people care about them. Alan says, “I can fight this because I’m not fighting by myself.” Over and over, people affected by HIV infection say they could not manage to preserve their emotional health without a sister or a certain friend or a support group or an aunt or a counselor. In fact, they go further and say that without these people, they would no longer know how to live.
This is not an absolute. Some people are more private than others, or would rather rely on their own resources. All people have times when they would rather be alone. Nor are other people always a treat; they can be boring or irritating or cause outright pain. Even the best of friends can get tiring. But in general, the people who do best with this or any other disease are those who have the support of their family and friends.
The principal sources of support for people with HIV infection are their caregivers: partners, parents, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters, aunts and uncles, cousins, grandparents, friends, neighbors. Other sources of support are other relatives, volunteer buddies from advocacy agencies, co-workers, church members, and members of any other groups to which they belong. Still other sources are the professionals who tend the mental health of those affected by HIV infection: psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, counselors, religious leaders—therapists of all kinds. Some caregivers give full-time care, some part-time care, and some check in occasionally. Anyone supporting a person with HIV infection or a caregiver is also a caregiver.
People affected by HIV infection must negotiate the territory between what one person needs and the other can supply. They must understand and tolerate each other’s anger, depression, guilt, fears, and desires to talk or not to talk. “All the time, I put myself in my husband’s position,” said Lisa. “I thought, how would I like to be treated? How would I feel? I would have been afraid of being left alone, afraid of losing control over my life. I had to remember all that.”
But in spite of the difficulty of maintaining all these balances and negotiations, people affected by HIV infection say that their supporters are invaluable, indispensable, fundamental to their lives. As June’s son said, “My mother keeps me alive.”
In general, supporters find ways to get people out of themselves, help them stay interested in life, and make them remain a part of the world. Supporters touch them, bring them things they like, and let them know they’re valued. Supporters talk about themselves and by doing that, give tacit permission to the person affected by HIV infection to talk as well. Supporters
listen—without criticism, without advice, without too many suggestions for improvement, and with kindness.
What follows are examples of the ways family, friends, religious leaders, AIDS-advocacy organizations, and mental health professionals have provided support. The examples can give caregivers some ideas of what support to offer and how vital that support is. The examples can also give people with the virus some notions of what support might be possible and where to get it, and perhaps a recognition of the support they already have. This is not a representative sample of all the kinds of support. People are endlessly inventive, and the ways to provide support must be nearly infinite.
*229\191\2*

HIV: ON LIVING-SOURCES OF SUPPORT:We accept as a standard truth that we are separate from all other people: we are alone, we are individuals, we are each one of a kind. We never truly understand what other people feel, nor do they truly understand our feelings. We are on our own, responsible for our own decisions and for solutions to our own problems. We protect ourselves first, and at almost any cost.     We accept as just as much a standard truth the opposite: that we are also interconnected. What happens to a friend seems to some extent also to happen to us. When a friend is lonely or worried or in pain, we cannot simply ignore him or her; we even feel some of her or his misery. Conversely, when we are unhappy ourselves, the presence of a friend is a comfort and relief. “For grief concealed strangles the soul,” wrote Robert Burton, a seventeenth-century minister and scholar, “but when as we shall but impart it to some discreet, trusty, loving friend, it is instantly removed.” Friends help us feel that someone else is interested, that we need not be alone. “Friends’ confabulations are comfortable at all times,” Burton wrote, “as fire in Winter, shade in Summer, as sleep on the grass to them that are weary, meal and drink to him that is hungry or athirst.” Friends give us the warmth of their concern, a rest from our troubles, and a feeling that we are somehow nourished.     The point is that, for people affected by HIV infection, the support of other people is as important to their minds as medication is to their bodies. When people are sick and hurting and alienated and guilty and feeling unjustly struck, they have a greater need for other people. Even when they are alone and feeling isolated, they are comforted by the knowledge that other people care about them. Alan says, “I can fight this because I’m not fighting by myself.” Over and over, people affected by HIV infection say they could not manage to preserve their emotional health without a sister or a certain friend or a support group or an aunt or a counselor. In fact, they go further and say that without these people, they would no longer know how to live.     This is not an absolute. Some people are more private than others, or would rather rely on their own resources. All people have times when they would rather be alone. Nor are other people always a treat; they can be boring or irritating or cause outright pain. Even the best of friends can get tiring. But in general, the people who do best with this or any other disease are those who have the support of their family and friends.     The principal sources of support for people with HIV infection are their caregivers: partners, parents, husbands and wives, brothers and sisters, aunts and uncles, cousins, grandparents, friends, neighbors. Other sources of support are other relatives, volunteer buddies from advocacy agencies, co-workers, church members, and members of any other groups to which they belong. Still other sources are the professionals who tend the mental health of those affected by HIV infection: psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, counselors, religious leaders—therapists of all kinds. Some caregivers give full-time care, some part-time care, and some check in occasionally. Anyone supporting a person with HIV infection or a caregiver is also a caregiver.     People affected by HIV infection must negotiate the territory between what one person needs and the other can supply. They must understand and tolerate each other’s anger, depression, guilt, fears, and desires to talk or not to talk. “All the time, I put myself in my husband’s position,” said Lisa. “I thought, how would I like to be treated? How would I feel? I would have been afraid of being left alone, afraid of losing control over my life. I had to remember all that.”But in spite of the difficulty of maintaining all these balances and negotiations, people affected by HIV infection say that their supporters are invaluable, indispensable, fundamental to their lives. As June’s son said, “My mother keeps me alive.”     In general, supporters find ways to get people out of themselves, help them stay interested in life, and make them remain a part of the world. Supporters touch them, bring them things they like, and let them know they’re valued. Supporters talk about themselves and by doing that, give tacit permission to the person affected by HIV infection to talk as well. Supporters listen—without criticism, without advice, without too many suggestions for improvement, and with kindness.     What follows are examples of the ways family, friends, religious leaders, AIDS-advocacy organizations, and mental health professionals have provided support. The examples can give caregivers some ideas of what support to offer and how vital that support is. The examples can also give people with the virus some notions of what support might be possible and where to get it, and perhaps a recognition of the support they already have. This is not a representative sample of all the kinds of support. People are endlessly inventive, and the ways to provide support must be nearly infinite.*229\191\2*

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HERBS FOR OPTIMUM HEALTH http://medicallext.com/2011/02/herbs-for-optimum-health/ http://medicallext.com/2011/02/herbs-for-optimum-health/#comments Tue, 01 Feb 2011 09:08:27 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=155
As with food supplements herbs can be used to obtain optimum health so that your body can balance your hormones, heal itself and help to prevent illness and disease getting a hold. Herbal medicine is the oldest form of medicine and herbs have been used for healing in all cultures and in all times. Herbs are in fact the foundation of numerous pharmaceutical drugs. Aspirin is based on an extract from willow, originally used for pain relief by the American Indians and steroids have been derived from wild yam. Up to 70 per cent of drugs in use today have their origins in plants. But Western pharmaceutical practice is to use the active ingredient of the plant or herb in a pure form of a determined strength and quantity as the basis for the drug. When a plant or herb is used in its whole form, as in herbal medicine, the side effects are absent or minimal. In traditional times, the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea), for example, was used for heart problems. In modern times, scientists have been able to isolate the main active ingredient of the foxglove (digoxin). However, by using only the active ingredient in a drug form, there is the real risk of side effects. By using the whole plant, the active ingredient interacts with all the other constituents of the plant which naturally includes ‘buffer’ ingredients that counteract the side effects. Herbalists believe this is the proper way to use the healing powers of herbs and plants.
The best way to use herbs is to choose those that have a balancing effect on your hormones without directly supplying one hormone or another. These balancing agents are called adaptogens. Adaptogenic herbs allow the body to restore itself naturally without causing an imbalance in any hormone or body system. These herbs tone and strengthen the whole of the reproductive system. Examples are: chaste-berry (agnus castus), black cohosh, blue cohosh and false unicorn root. Below I have given a guide for the general use of these and other herbs at the menopause. If you have specific symptoms such as fibroids, etc., it would be worth consulting a good herbalist or a health professional with experience in using herbs because some can have a direct hormone-like action and are used in specific conditions while best avoided for others.
For general use, it is better to have a number of herbs mixed together. Some herbs work better for some women than others, so if you have an appropriate ‘menopause’ mix you can be sure of having a good balance.
The easiest and most effective way of taking herbs is in tincture form (approximately 5ml (1 teaspoon) three times daily in a little water). Try to get tinctures made from organically grown herbs. In the liquid form the herbs are already dissolved and hence they are available faster and their action is quicker. In the dry form, the tablets or capsules have to be digested and the benefit of the herbs is only as good as your digestive and absorption processes. You will find that as the herbs rebalance your hormones you can reduce the dose, bringing it down to 2.5ml (УЬ teaspoon) three times a day, for instance, and eventually to the point when you don’t need them any more. Herbs are not like drugs. If drugs are stopped, the symptoms can return and you are back where you started. The herbs stop the symptoms. But they are also addressing the cause at the same time, so the symptoms are being alleviated because the body is becoming more balanced.
*1/101/5*

HERBS FOR OPTIMUM HEALTH
As with food supplements herbs can be used to obtain optimum health so that your body can balance your hormones, heal itself and help to prevent illness and disease getting a hold. Herbal medicine is the oldest form of medicine and herbs have been used for healing in all cultures and in all times. Herbs are in fact the foundation of numerous pharmaceutical drugs. Aspirin is based on an extract from willow, originally used for pain relief by the American Indians and steroids have been derived from wild yam. Up to 70 per cent of drugs in use today have their origins in plants. But Western pharmaceutical practice is to use the active ingredient of the plant or herb in a pure form of a determined strength and quantity as the basis for the drug. When a plant or herb is used in its whole form, as in herbal medicine, the side effects are absent or minimal. In traditional times, the foxglove plant (Digitalis purpurea), for example, was used for heart problems. In modern times, scientists have been able to isolate the main active ingredient of the foxglove (digoxin). However, by using only the active ingredient in a drug form, there is the real risk of side effects. By using the whole plant, the active ingredient interacts with all the other constituents of the plant which naturally includes ‘buffer’ ingredients that counteract the side effects. Herbalists believe this is the proper way to use the healing powers of herbs and plants.The best way to use herbs is to choose those that have a balancing effect on your hormones without directly supplying one hormone or another. These balancing agents are called adaptogens. Adaptogenic herbs allow the body to restore itself naturally without causing an imbalance in any hormone or body system. These herbs tone and strengthen the whole of the reproductive system. Examples are: chaste-berry (agnus castus), black cohosh, blue cohosh and false unicorn root. Below I have given a guide for the general use of these and other herbs at the menopause. If you have specific symptoms such as fibroids, etc., it would be worth consulting a good herbalist or a health professional with experience in using herbs because some can have a direct hormone-like action and are used in specific conditions while best avoided for others.For general use, it is better to have a number of herbs mixed together. Some herbs work better for some women than others, so if you have an appropriate ‘menopause’ mix you can be sure of having a good balance.The easiest and most effective way of taking herbs is in tincture form (approximately 5ml (1 teaspoon) three times daily in a little water). Try to get tinctures made from organically grown herbs. In the liquid form the herbs are already dissolved and hence they are available faster and their action is quicker. In the dry form, the tablets or capsules have to be digested and the benefit of the herbs is only as good as your digestive and absorption processes. You will find that as the herbs rebalance your hormones you can reduce the dose, bringing it down to 2.5ml (УЬ teaspoon) three times a day, for instance, and eventually to the point when you don’t need them any more. Herbs are not like drugs. If drugs are stopped, the symptoms can return and you are back where you started. The herbs stop the symptoms. But they are also addressing the cause at the same time, so the symptoms are being alleviated because the body is becoming more balanced.
*1/101/5*

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OSTEOARTHRITIS OR DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE http://medicallext.com/2011/01/osteoarthritis-or-degenerative-joint-disease/ http://medicallext.com/2011/01/osteoarthritis-or-degenerative-joint-disease/#comments Tue, 18 Jan 2011 09:07:44 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=153
Osteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It has been given the mistaken image of an “old-age disease,” because it is the result of a wearing away of the cartilage in the joints, often due to many years of use. This erosion results in stiffness, and because it usually leaves behind a jagged area rather than a smooth surface, pain results that can be mild but is sometimes severe. Some degree of erosion is present in most elderly individuals and is generally accepted as an inherent part of the aging process. X-ray surveys in the United States and Great Britain indicate that 40 to 50 percent of the adult population has osteoarthritic changes in the hands or feet. It is estimated that 5 to 10 million Americans have symptoms due to these changes. But even this form of the “old-age disease” is not limited to the old: some people as young as forty (especially women) are afflicted with osteoarthritis, and as it often can be the result of improperly treated injuries or overuse, it can afflict anyone of any age who leads an active athletic life without taking appropriate precautions.
Osteoarthritis affects weight-bearing joints, especially the knees and hips. Although popularly referred to as osteoarthritis, this term is inaccurate because itis implies a disorder that is basically inflammatory, and this disease is in fact characterized by progressive deterioration of joint cartilage and the formation of dense bone and bony projections at the margins of the affected joints.
In its early stages the joint cartilage is softened and roughened; as the disease progresses, this cartilage may be destroyed. The exposed underlying bone no longer has its necessary protective cover of smooth cartilage that permits the articulating ends of the bones within the joint to glide smoothly over each other. The exposed, bared bone becomes more dense, and changes occur with the formation of new bone as the body tries to repair the local damage with regeneration of destroyed tissue.
The function of the relatively soft bone under the cartilage is to cushion the joint from the frequent mechanical stresses that result from the repeated impact of one bone against another during physical activities. With the passing of time, this softer shock-absorbing bone will have sustained numerous microscopic impact fractures that harden it. The reduced cushioning effect of the harder bone causes the initial damage to the overlying cartilage.
In addition to the aging process, there are local joint factors and a number of predisposing conditions that are important in the location and severity of the degeneration of joint cartilage. These include excessive wear and tear due to activities and occupation, injury, structural abnormalities, increased weight bearing with overweight, disorders of the cartilage, bleeding into the joint and hereditary factors.
*3/295/5*

OSTEOARTHRITIS OR DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASEOsteoarthritis, also called degenerative joint disease, is the most common form of arthritis. It has been given the mistaken image of an “old-age disease,” because it is the result of a wearing away of the cartilage in the joints, often due to many years of use. This erosion results in stiffness, and because it usually leaves behind a jagged area rather than a smooth surface, pain results that can be mild but is sometimes severe. Some degree of erosion is present in most elderly individuals and is generally accepted as an inherent part of the aging process. X-ray surveys in the United States and Great Britain indicate that 40 to 50 percent of the adult population has osteoarthritic changes in the hands or feet. It is estimated that 5 to 10 million Americans have symptoms due to these changes. But even this form of the “old-age disease” is not limited to the old: some people as young as forty (especially women) are afflicted with osteoarthritis, and as it often can be the result of improperly treated injuries or overuse, it can afflict anyone of any age who leads an active athletic life without taking appropriate precautions.Osteoarthritis affects weight-bearing joints, especially the knees and hips. Although popularly referred to as osteoarthritis, this term is inaccurate because itis implies a disorder that is basically inflammatory, and this disease is in fact characterized by progressive deterioration of joint cartilage and the formation of dense bone and bony projections at the margins of the affected joints.In its early stages the joint cartilage is softened and roughened; as the disease progresses, this cartilage may be destroyed. The exposed underlying bone no longer has its necessary protective cover of smooth cartilage that permits the articulating ends of the bones within the joint to glide smoothly over each other. The exposed, bared bone becomes more dense, and changes occur with the formation of new bone as the body tries to repair the local damage with regeneration of destroyed tissue.The function of the relatively soft bone under the cartilage is to cushion the joint from the frequent mechanical stresses that result from the repeated impact of one bone against another during physical activities. With the passing of time, this softer shock-absorbing bone will have sustained numerous microscopic impact fractures that harden it. The reduced cushioning effect of the harder bone causes the initial damage to the overlying cartilage.In addition to the aging process, there are local joint factors and a number of predisposing conditions that are important in the location and severity of the degeneration of joint cartilage. These include excessive wear and tear due to activities and occupation, injury, structural abnormalities, increased weight bearing with overweight, disorders of the cartilage, bleeding into the joint and hereditary factors.*3/295/5*

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DIGESTIVE PROCESS http://medicallext.com/2011/01/digestive-process/ http://medicallext.com/2011/01/digestive-process/#comments Tue, 11 Jan 2011 09:07:00 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=151
Food provides the chemicals we need for energy and body maintenance. Because our bodies cannot synthesize or produce certain essential nutrients, we must obtain them from the foods we eat. Even though we may take in adequate amounts of foods and nutrients, if our body systems are not functioning properly, much of the nutrient value in our food may be lost. Before foods can be utilized properly, the digestive system must break the larger food particles down into smaller, more usable forms. The process by which foods are broken down and either absorbed or excreted by the body is known as the digestive process.
Even before you take your first bite of pizza, your body has already begun a series of complex digestive responses. Your mouth prepares for the food by increasing production of saliva. Saliva contains mostly water, which aids in chewing and swallowing, but it also contains important enzymes that begin the process of food breakdown, including amylase, which begins to break down carbohydrates. Enzymes are protein compounds that facilitate chemical reactions but are not altered in the process. From the mouth, the food passes down the esophagus, a 9- to 10-inch tube that connects the mouth and stomach. A series of contractions and relaxations by the muscles lining the esophagus gently move food to the next digestive organ, the stomach. Here food mixes with enzymes and stomach acids. Hydrochloric acid begins to work in combination with pepsin, an enzyme, to break down proteins. In most people, the stomach secretes enough mucus to protect the stomach lining from these harsh digestive juices.
Further digestive activity takes place in the small intestine, a 20-foot coiled tube containing three sections: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Each section secretes digestive enzymes that, when combined with enzymes from the liver and the pancreas, further contribute to the breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Once broken down, these nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream to supply body cells with energy. The liver is the major organ that determines whether nutrients are stored, sent to cells or organs, or excreted. Solid wastes consisting of fiber, water, and salts are dumped into the large intestine, where most of the water and salts are reabsorbed into the system and the fiber is passed out through the anus. The entire digestive process takes approximately 24 hours.
*1/277/5*

DIGESTIVE PROCESSFood provides the chemicals we need for energy and body maintenance. Because our bodies cannot synthesize or produce certain essential nutrients, we must obtain them from the foods we eat. Even though we may take in adequate amounts of foods and nutrients, if our body systems are not functioning properly, much of the nutrient value in our food may be lost. Before foods can be utilized properly, the digestive system must break the larger food particles down into smaller, more usable forms. The process by which foods are broken down and either absorbed or excreted by the body is known as the digestive process.Even before you take your first bite of pizza, your body has already begun a series of complex digestive responses. Your mouth prepares for the food by increasing production of saliva. Saliva contains mostly water, which aids in chewing and swallowing, but it also contains important enzymes that begin the process of food breakdown, including amylase, which begins to break down carbohydrates. Enzymes are protein compounds that facilitate chemical reactions but are not altered in the process. From the mouth, the food passes down the esophagus, a 9- to 10-inch tube that connects the mouth and stomach. A series of contractions and relaxations by the muscles lining the esophagus gently move food to the next digestive organ, the stomach. Here food mixes with enzymes and stomach acids. Hydrochloric acid begins to work in combination with pepsin, an enzyme, to break down proteins. In most people, the stomach secretes enough mucus to protect the stomach lining from these harsh digestive juices.Further digestive activity takes place in the small intestine, a 20-foot coiled tube containing three sections: the duodenum, the jejunum, and the ileum. Each section secretes digestive enzymes that, when combined with enzymes from the liver and the pancreas, further contribute to the breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. Once broken down, these nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream to supply body cells with energy. The liver is the major organ that determines whether nutrients are stored, sent to cells or organs, or excreted. Solid wastes consisting of fiber, water, and salts are dumped into the large intestine, where most of the water and salts are reabsorbed into the system and the fiber is passed out through the anus. The entire digestive process takes approximately 24 hours.*1/277/5*

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HOW WE DIAGNOSE A SEIZURE AND DECIDE WHAT IT WILL MEAN FOR YOUR CHILD: JANE’S CASE STORY http://medicallext.com/2011/01/how-we-diagnose-a-seizure-and-decide-what-it-will-mean-for-your-child-jane%e2%80%99s-case-story/ http://medicallext.com/2011/01/how-we-diagnose-a-seizure-and-decide-what-it-will-mean-for-your-child-jane%e2%80%99s-case-story/#comments Tue, 04 Jan 2011 09:06:11 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=149
Jane is thirteen years old, and the nurse is cleaning her arm with alcohol in preparation for taking the blood tests ordered by her physician. The nurse takes out the syringe and needle and Jane says, “Wait a minute, I don’t feel well.” She looks pale and sweaty, then collapses in the chair. She stiffens and has jerking of her arms and legs that lasts perhaps a minute. Was that a seizure? “Yes,” the physician says. “That is what is called ‘convulsive syncope.’ Jane fainted, just as many people faint when blood is taken. In some people, fainting is enough to trigger a brief seizure. It’s nothing to worry about. She’ll be fine.”
That diagnosis was easy. Jane’s seizure occurred because of fainting. The episode was witnessed from the start by people trained to observe carefully. They heard Jane say she didn’t feel well. They saw her become pale and sweaty before losing consciousness. It was clear to them that Jane fainted and then had a seizure. The episode occurred in a situation where fainting is not uncommon. But suppose Jane had been sitting in the hot sun with her friends at a baseball game when the episode occurred? Could she have been drinking beer or taking drugs? Would her friends have noted the paleness and sweating before she fainted, became stiff, and had the brief jerking movements? If they hadn’t noticed the fainting and had only seen the jerking, your doctor might not have known why the seizure occurred and would have been concerned that it might recur. He could not have been as confident in saying that it was convulsive syncope.
*17\208\8*

HOW WE DIAGNOSE A SEIZURE AND DECIDE WHAT IT WILL MEAN FOR YOUR CHILD: JANE’S CASE STORYJane is thirteen years old, and the nurse is cleaning her arm with alcohol in preparation for taking the blood tests ordered by her physician. The nurse takes out the syringe and needle and Jane says, “Wait a minute, I don’t feel well.” She looks pale and sweaty, then collapses in the chair. She stiffens and has jerking of her arms and legs that lasts perhaps a minute. Was that a seizure? “Yes,” the physician says. “That is what is called ‘convulsive syncope.’ Jane fainted, just as many people faint when blood is taken. In some people, fainting is enough to trigger a brief seizure. It’s nothing to worry about. She’ll be fine.”That diagnosis was easy. Jane’s seizure occurred because of fainting. The episode was witnessed from the start by people trained to observe carefully. They heard Jane say she didn’t feel well. They saw her become pale and sweaty before losing consciousness. It was clear to them that Jane fainted and then had a seizure. The episode occurred in a situation where fainting is not uncommon. But suppose Jane had been sitting in the hot sun with her friends at a baseball game when the episode occurred? Could she have been drinking beer or taking drugs? Would her friends have noted the paleness and sweating before she fainted, became stiff, and had the brief jerking movements? If they hadn’t noticed the fainting and had only seen the jerking, your doctor might not have known why the seizure occurred and would have been concerned that it might recur. He could not have been as confident in saying that it was convulsive syncope.*17\208\8*

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MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY FOR TYPE I DIABETES http://medicallext.com/2010/12/medical-nutrition-therapy-for-type-i-diabetes/ http://medicallext.com/2010/12/medical-nutrition-therapy-for-type-i-diabetes/#comments Tue, 28 Dec 2010 09:05:35 +0000 admin http://medicallext.com/?p=147
For patients with type I diabetes, medical nutrition therapy should emphasize the interrelationships among food, exercise, and insulin. Those receiving conventional insulin therapy must maintain consistency in the timing and amount of their food intake. Ideally, the insulin plan should be designed to match the patient’s preferred eating pattern. Earlier, the nutrition recommendations were for total calories and carbohydrates to be ‘fractionated’ between meals and snacks based on the insulin regimen. This is no longer recommended because it does not promote individualization. However, the timing of food intake should be synchronized with the administration of insulin. Because of the limitations of a conventional insulin regimen (i.e., 1 to 2 insulin injections per day), patients on such a regimen may need to alter their usual eating habits by incorporating consistency with timing and amounts of food.
Patients receiving intensive insulin therapy, i.e., multiple daily injections or pump infusion, have considerable flexibility in when and what to eat. Nevertheless, they too need to integrate their insulin regimen with their lifestyle and adjust the insulin doses when they deviate from their usual eating and exercise patterns. These patients can adjust their pre-meal insulin dose to compensate for deviation from their meal plan and exercise programme. Even with the increase in flexibility, the more consistent they are with their eating and physical activity, the easier is the overall management.
*3/356/5*

MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY FOR TYPE I DIABETESFor patients with type I diabetes, medical nutrition therapy should emphasize the interrelationships among food, exercise, and insulin. Those receiving conventional insulin therapy must maintain consistency in the timing and amount of their food intake. Ideally, the insulin plan should be designed to match the patient’s preferred eating pattern. Earlier, the nutrition recommendations were for total calories and carbohydrates to be ‘fractionated’ between meals and snacks based on the insulin regimen. This is no longer recommended because it does not promote individualization. However, the timing of food intake should be synchronized with the administration of insulin. Because of the limitations of a conventional insulin regimen (i.e., 1 to 2 insulin injections per day), patients on such a regimen may need to alter their usual eating habits by incorporating consistency with timing and amounts of food.Patients receiving intensive insulin therapy, i.e., multiple daily injections or pump infusion, have considerable flexibility in when and what to eat. Nevertheless, they too need to integrate their insulin regimen with their lifestyle and adjust the insulin doses when they deviate from their usual eating and exercise patterns. These patients can adjust their pre-meal insulin dose to compensate for deviation from their meal plan and exercise programme. Even with the increase in flexibility, the more consistent they are with their eating and physical activity, the easier is the overall management.*3/356/5*

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